Democritus University of Thrace – Department of Greek Philology
School of Classical Studies and Humanities

The use of games is internationally recognized as a good practice for increasing learner motivation and engagement in the learning process. Gamification helps develop higher-order skills such as critical thinking, synthesis, and information analysis. Τhe evolution and effectiveness of educational games, combined with the high motivation and pleasure they offer for the user, has given impetus to the development of gamification methodology.

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International Standard Classification of Education (2011)

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) was designed to facilitate the compilation and comparison of education statistics both within and across national boundaries. It combines two cross-classification variables (levels and fields of education) with the type of education (general/vocational/pre-vocational) or students’ intended destination (tertiary education or direct entry into the labour market).

  • ISCED 0: Early childhood education (‘less than primary’ for educational attainment)

Pre-primary education is defined as the initial stage of organised instruction. It is school-based or centre-based and is designed for children aged at least 3 years.

  • ISCED 1: Primary education

This level begins between 5 and 7 years of age, is compulsory in all countries and generally lasts from 4 to 6 years.

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Spanish educational system

Stages of the education system

Pre-primary education is up to 6 years of age. Although it is not a compulsory education stage, the second cycle is free in all publicly-funded schools (public schools and publicly-funded private schools). Public schools providing it are called pre-primary schools and those also offering primary education are called pre-primary and primary schools.

Basic education is compulsory and free in publicly-funded schools. It lasts ten years and it is divided into two stages: 

  • Primary education, provided in primary schools. It covers six academic years, usually studied between the ages of 6 and 12
  • Compulsory secondary education, studied in secondary schools, between the ages of 12 and 16. At the end of this stage, students receive the first official certificate, the Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate, which allows them to have access to upper secondary education or the world of work.
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Italian educational system

First cycle of education

The first cycle of education is compulsory and is made up of primary and lower secondary education.

Primary education (scuola primaria) starts at 6 years of age and lasts 5 years.

Lower secondary education (scuola secondaria di I grado) starts at 11 years of age and lasts 3 years.

Within the first cycle, students pass from one level to the next one without exams. At the end of the first cycle of education, students who pass the final state examination progress directly to the second cycle of education, the first two years of which are compulsory.

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Greek educational system

Stages of the education system

Compulsory education lasts 11 years and extends from the ages of 4 to 15.  The stages of the Greek education are mainly 3:

1) Primary education

Primary education includes pre-primary and primary schools.

Nipiagogeio

Nipiagogeio (pre-primary school) in Greece has become compulsory for all 4-year-old children, since school year 2018/19.  School year 2020/21 foresees the integration of the two-year compulsory pre-primary school in the few remaining municipalities.

Infant centres (vrefikoi stathmoi), infant/child centres (vrefonipiakoi stathmoi) and child centres (paidikoi stathmoi) represent early childhood care.  They are run under the remit of the municipal authorities.  They cater for children between the ages of 2 months and up to the age of the beginning of compulsory education.

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